The aim of our study is to estimate association of gender diet preferences with prevalence of hypertension and obesity in general population in St.Petersburg, RussiaDesign and method:
As a part of all-Russian epidemiology survey ESSE-RF random sampling of 1600 Saint-Petersburg inhabitants stratified by age and sex was selected. All subjects signed informed consent and filled in questionnaire regarding physical activity, smoking, education, sugar and salt consuming. Anthropometry (weight, height with body-mass index (BMI) calculation, waist circumference (WC)) and blood pressure (BP) measurement (two times on right hand in sitting position with calculation of average level) were performed. Hypertension was diagnosed in case of antihypertensive therapy and/or BP>=140/90 mmHg.Results:
Males more often than females had hypertension (45,2% vs 35,9%, 2 = 5,3, p < 0,05). Also males had higher systolic BP level (133,7+18,4 vs 126,7+20,5 mmHg, p < 0,05) and comparable diastolic BP (82,5+11,6 vs 78,0+11,7 mmHg, p > 0,05) than females. High salt intake was significantly more frequent in males (44%) compared to females (37,5%) (chi-square = 7,8, p < 0,05).Results:
No difference in overweight according to BMI criteria was revealed: BMI>29 kg/m2 had 31% of men and 34% of women (p > 0,05), but according to different WC criteria significant difference was found: 51% of men and 65% of women (chi-square = 30,7, p < 0,01) according to IDF2005 criteria (WC> = 94 for males and 80 cm for females) and 30% of men and 46% of women (chi-square = 41,4, p < 0,01) according to ATP2003 (WC> = 102 for males and 88 cm for females), respectively. Average sugar intake was 4,1 ± 1,8 for men and 6,2+2,0 pieces/day for women (p < 0,01). Educational level and age was not associated with dietary habits.Conclusions:
Hypertension was registered more often in males and can be associated with higher salt intake. Females with abdominal obesity consumed more sugar.