Impairment of perinatal nutrition in survivors of the Siege of Leningrad during Second World War could promote to development of cardiometabolic disorders in the adult life. Besides, early life famine can determine future lifestyle. The aim of our study was to assess the cardiovascular, socioeconomic (including nutrition) factors of survivors of the Siege of Leningrad comparing with control group.Design and method:
309 survivors of Leningrad Siege and 54 participants of control group were examined. Controls of the same age were born in other regions of the Soviet Union (Russia), but not in Leningrad, and after war were constantly living in Leningrad (St. Petersburg). All participants were interviewed by special questionnaire regarding lifestyle, socioeconomic risk factors, cardiovascular disease, comorbidities and medication. An average frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption (portions per week), fish (days a week) were calculated. We also estimated kind of fat used for cooking. Blood pressure was measured twice on right arm in the sitting position after 5 minute of rest. Anthropometry were performed according to standard procedures. Fasting serum lipids and plasma glucose were measured on Hitachi-902. Informed consent was obtained from all participants.Results:
The groups were matched by age, body mass index and waist circumference. There were no significant differences in the level of glucose, lipid profile, prevalence of hypertension and diabetes type 2. Survivors have significantly higher income compared to the control group (16710 ± 896 vs 13140 ± 800 rubles, p = 0,06). Survivors spend significantly more money to buy food: 78 survivors (31.2%) vs 6 (13.3%) of controls, p = 0,009, were spending more than 2/3 of income on food. The frequency of food consumption in these two groups did not differ (table 1).Conclusions:
No significant differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional habits were revealed between controls and survivors. Possibly, survivors represent selection of subjects who keep alive due to moderation in eating in spite of special psychological pattern after starvation – to make food as a priority.