Renal function and attributable risk of death and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with cardiovascular risk factors from a registry-based cohort: the Estudio Cardiovascular Valencia-risk study

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Abstract

Background:

Information about the attributable risk associated with renal dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors is lacking.

Objective:

We aimed to estimate the attributable risk associated with chronic kidney disease Epidemiology Collaboration-estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), for all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular hospitalization.

Design, setting, and participants:

Prospective study of study participants with cardiovascular risk factors in 2008–2012. We included 52 007 cardiovascular disease-free men and women aged 30 years or older with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, who underwent routine health examinations in primary care.

Results:

A total of 6639 (12.8%) patients had eGFR below 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and among them 1782 (3.4%) had 45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or lower. During an average follow-up time of 3.2 years, 54.12 deaths, 99.98 coronary heart disease (CHD) hospitalizations, and 90.64 stroke hospitalizations/10 000 person-years were recorded. The population attributable risks associated with having a GFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were 6.9% (95% confidence interval = 2.07, 10.65) for all-cause mortality, 6.8% (4.3, 9.4) for CHD hospitalization, and 4.1% (1.02, 7.00) for stroke hospitalization. Participants with increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors displayed increasing population attributable risks associated to a GFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 for all-cause mortality and CHD (P heterogeneity 0.002 and 0.05, respectively).

Conclusion:

In a large general practice cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease risk factors, decreasing eGFR levels were associated with additional attributed risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. Our findings underscore that intensified efforts are needed to reduce the cardiovascular disease burden associated to chronic kidney disease.

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