Recurrent hyperkalemia frequently limits use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or heart failure. Patiromer is a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium (K+)-binding polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperkalemia. This post-hoc analysis of OPAL-HK examined the effectiveness and safety of patiromer in reducing serum K+ in hyperkalemic CKD patients on RAASi, with hypertension, receiving diuretic therapy versus those not on diuretics.Methods:
Depending on the degree of hyperkalemia at baseline, CKD patients with serum K+ from 5.1 to less than 6.5 mmol/l on RAASi (n = 243) were assigned to a patiromer of total dose 8.4 or 16.8 g, divided twice daily. Changes in serum K+, and tolerability and safety were assessed over 4 weeks in patients on and not on diuretics.Results:
At baseline, 132 patients used diuretics and 111 were not on diuretics, mean age was 64.3 and 64.0 years, respectively, and 63 and 51% were men. Similar reductions in serum K+ were seen over 4 weeks in both subgroups. At week 4, serum K+ fell by −0.95 ± 0.04 mmol/l with any diuretic and −1.04 ± 0.05 mmol/l with no diuretic. Patiromer was well tolerated, with mild-to-moderate constipation reported as the most common adverse event (7.6 and 14.4% of patients on any diuretic or no diuretic, respectively). Hypokalemia (s-K+ <3.5 mEq/l) was reported in 2.3% of patients on any diuretic and in 3.7% not on diuretics.Conclusion:
The serum K+-lowering efficacy and safety profile of patiromer in hyperkalemia patients with CKD was not compromised by diuretic therapy.