Uric acid and blood pressure: exploring the role of uric acid production in The Maastricht Study

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Abstract

Objective:

Accumulation of reactive oxygen species by increased uric acid production has been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for the association between uric acid and high blood pressure (BP). We, therefore, investigated the association between serum uric acid concentration and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion, as proxy for uric acid production, with ambulatory 24-h blood pressure and hypertension.

Methods:

Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 2555 individuals [52% men, mean age 60.0 ± 8.2 years; 27% type 2 diabetes (by design)] from The Maastricht Study. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of serum uric acid and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hypertension.

Results:

After adjustment for traditional hypertension risk factors, serum uric acid concentration (per SD of 81 μmol/l) was associated with higher 24-h MAP [β 0.63 mmHg; confidence interval (CI) 0.27–1.00] and positively associated with hypertension (odds ratio 1.43; CI 1.27–1.61). Urinary uric acid excretion (per SD of 140 mg/day/1.73 m2) was associated with higher 24-h MAP (β 0.79 mmHg; CI 0.46–1.12) and with hypertension (odds ratio 1.13; CI 1.02–1.25). There was no significant association between serum and 24-h urinary uric acid excretion with 24-h pulse pressure. There was no interaction with sex or age for the aforementioned associations.

Conclusion:

Higher serum and urinary uric acid concentrations were associated with higher 24-h MAP and hypertension. These results suggest that serum and 24-urinary uric acid concentrations, the latter as proxy for uric acid production are, independent of each other, associated with BP and hypertension.

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