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Stimulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases renal sympathetic activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in rats. Thus, we hypothesized that CB1 receptor in the RVLM may play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension.To this end, we evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors in the RVLM in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertensive rats. We then used pharmacological and molecular methods to examine the role of RVLM CB1 receptors in regulation of BP, heart rate (HR), and RSNA in obesity-induced hypertensive rats.We found that HFD-fed rats exhibited higher basal BP, HR, and RSNA than standard diet-fed rats, which were associated with increased levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptor expression in the RVLM. Furthermore, unilateral intra-RVLM microinjections of AM251 (0, 100, or 500 nM/0.5 μl/site) dose-dependently decreased BP, HR, and RSNA to a greater extent in HFD-fed rats than in standard diet-fed rats. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CB1 receptor expression in the RVLM robustly decreased BP, HR, and RSNA in HFD-fed rats.Taken together, our results suggested that enhanced CB1 receptor-mediated neurotransmissions in the RVLM may play a role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension.