Most of all guidelines for hypertension recommends the following six elements as non-pharmacological interventions for hypertension: weight loss, a heart-healthy diet, dietary potassium intake and sodium reduction, increasing physical activity, moderate alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking. The improving lifestyle points of hypertension are mostly the same for each country or region, beyond race and culture. The objective was to comprehensively summarize the interactions between fundamental factors for improving lifestyle habits and genes related to hypertension.Methods:
PubMed was used to search literature with interaction with hypertension-related genes and each of lifestyle constitutive factor.Results:
Gene-environmental interactions studies in populations identified in the following examples of factors-induced hypertension: obesity (Alpha-MSH, IRX3, MC4R, FTO, PCSK1, TMEM18, and variant near FGF5); salt sensitivity (MKNK1, C2orf80, EPHA6, CASP4, SCOC, CLGN, MGAT4D, ARHGAP42, and LINC01478 with the Chinese, NPPA rs5063, CYP3A5, eNOS, and ACE with the Japanese, and ACE with the Brazilians); alcohol (ALDH2, ADH1B, CYP11B, ApoE); smoking (CORIN, CYP4A11, GMDR, NEDD8, TTYH2, CpG6,8, GNAS1, MTHFR, KCNJ11, CYB5B, LRP2, near MN1, and MECOM); physical activity (PGC1-alpha, PDK4, and PPAR-delta).Conclusion:
Hypertension management in the era of precision medicine could be considered efficiently through interacting with the components of appropriate lifestyle for preventing hypertension in guidelines by modeling gene-environment interactions. To that end, there are further issues to be discussed for others confounding and interaction factors such as race, age, other lifestyle habits, weather condition, stress, and social environmental factors.