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This study aims to analyze the effects of dietary sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) intakes on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among Chinese adults.Data from China's Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991–2011) was collected and 20698 adults who participated in at least one wave in this survey were chosen for analysis. Mixed effects model was used to analyze the effect of dietary mineral intake on blood pressure. Dietary survey method in this survey was a three-day, 24-hours dietary recall review.Mixed-effect model analysis showed SBP and DBP did not change significantly with dietary Na and Ca intake. Both SBP and DBP decreased when dietary K intake increased. As dietary Mg intake increased, SBP decreased significantly, but DBP did not significantly change. Adjusting for gender, age, BMI, and total dietary energy, blood pressure didn’t change as dietary Na, Ca increased (all P > 0.05). SBP decreased with higher K (β = − 0.00081, P < 0.0001), but DBP not (P > 0.05). SBP and DBP changed significantly with higher Mg (SBP: β = 0.00544, P < 0.001; DBP: β = 0.00157, P = 0.0059). After further adjusted for life behavior and dietary factors, blood pressure didn’t change with higher Na and Ca (all P > 0.05).The correlations between blood pressures with K are significantly negative (SBP: β = − 0.00097, P < 0.0001; DBP: β = − 0.00031, P = 0.0158); but significantly positive with Mg (SBP: β = 0.00639, P < 0.0001; DBP: β = 0.00211, P = 0.0017).The effects of dietary Na, K, Ca and Mg intakes to blood pressures in Chinese adults were inconsistent. Higher dietary Na and Ca intake didn’t change blood pressure. Higher K intake had negative effect to blood pressure, while higher Mg intake had positive effect to blood pressure.