A field study revealed that the mating system of the richardiid Setellia sp. meets even the most stringent definition of lek behavior. Males remain on the upper surface of the leaves of Saranthe aff. klotzchiana (Maranthaceae), where they perform ritualized displays related to courtship and territorial behavior. Correlational data support the existence of reproductive dominance hierarchies, which are based on both male vs. male and female vs. female agonistic interactions. Curiously, the behavioral acts performed by Setellia sp. show remarkable similarities to other nonrelated dipteran lekkers. Aspects of evolution and convergence of these behaviors in the Acalyptratae are considered.