One-year Outcomes with Angiographic Follow-Up of Paclitaxel-Eluting Balloon for the Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis: Insights from Spanish Multicenter Registry

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Abstract

Introduction:

Even in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a relatively common problem for which a satisfactory solution is yet to be found. We wished to assess the efficacy of a new paclitaxel-coated drug-eluting balloon (DEB) in the treatment of these lesions.

Methods:

In this prospective multicenter registry 126 patients with ISR, treated with a new paclitaxel-eluting balloon (3.0 μg/m2 balloon surface area), were included. All lesions were predilated using conventional balloon angioplasty. The DEB was inflated for a minimum of 60 seconds. Dual antiplatelet therapy was recommended for at least 1 month. The only exclusion criteria were acute STEMI and cardiogenic shock.

Results:

Thirty-three percent of patients were diabetic and 51% presented acutely. Interestingly, 48% had ISR of DES, 54% had ISR in a small vessel, and 29% involved bifurcation lesions. The pattern of ISR was focal in 59% and the most treated artery was the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Angiographic success was 96%. In 2 centers, repeat angiography was performed in 79% and restenosis observed in 6 patients (17.6%). MACE rate at a median of 12 (6–13) months was 16.7% (4.0% cardiac death, 4.0% MI, and 12.0% TLR). There was only 1 probable thombotic event (ARC). As compared with BMS-ISR, patients with DES-ISR were more often diabetic (40 vs. 28%) and had more re-restenosis (TLR 14.8 vs. 9.2%).

Conclusion:

In a real-world population, treatment of ISR (including 48% DES-ISR) with this DEB provides good mid-term results with 12% TLR at 1 year, especially in ISR pattern IC (9% MACE). (J Interven Cardiol 2011;24:518–528)

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