AP localization can be predicted by analyzing the polarity of the delta wave, QRS polarity, and R/S ratio in patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. However, the estimation of AP location is limited in patients with concealed pathways during atrioventricular reentrant tachycardias (AVRT). Thus, we analyzed retrograde P-wave polarity during orthodromic AVRT and developed an algorithm to predict the localization of concealed accessory pathways (AP).Methods and Results
A total number of 131 patients with a single AP and inducible orthodromic AVRT were included. The initial 61 patients were analyzed retrospectively for algorithm development, whereas 70 patients were evaluated prospectively. The retrograde P-wave polarity was analyzed by subtracting the superimposing T-wave during orthodromic AVRT using custom-designed software. Four leads of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) were identified to accurately distinguish AP locations assigned to four different regions around each AV annulus: I, aVR, aVL, and V1. Lead V1 was used to differentiate right (negative or isoelectric) from left (solely positive) APs. Retrograde P-wave in lead I was negative in left posterior APs exclusively and became more positive with an AP location shifting towards right anterior. P-wave polarity in lead aVR demonstrated a shift from a positive polarity from left APs to isoelectric in right APs. The opposite direction (shift from positive to isoelectric) was observed for lead aVL. The subsequently developed algorithm for concealed AP localization using these surface ECG leads demonstrated a high sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value particularly for common AP localizations (left posterior and inferior, and right septal) when applied in a prospective fashion.Conclusion
Concealed AP localization can be accurately predicted by the analysis of retrograde P-wave polarity during orthodromic AVRT using the algorithm derived from the presented study.