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Lactic acid and base deficit (BD) values are frequently monitored in the intensive care unit and operating room setting to evaluate oxygenation, ventilation, cardiac output, and peripheral perfusion. Although generally obtained from an arterial cannula, such access may not always be available. The current study prospectively investigates the correlation of arterial and peripheral venous values of BD and lactic acid. The study cohort included 48 patients. Arterial BD values ranged from −8 to 4 mEq/L and peripheral venous BD values ranged from −8 to 4 mEq/L. Arterial lactic acid values ranged from 0.36 to 2.45 μmol/L and peripheral venous lactic acid values ranged from 0.38 to 4 μmol/L. The arterial BD (−0.4 ± 2.2 mEq/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous BD (−0.6 ± 2.2 mEq/L). The arterial lactic acid (1.0 ± 0.5 μmol/L) was not significantly different from the peripheral venous lactic acid (1.1 ± 0.6 μmol/L). Pearson correlation coefficients demonstrated a very high correlation between arterial and peripheral venous BD (r = .88, P < .001) and between arterial and peripheral venous lactic acid (r = .67, P < .001). Bland-Altman plots of both pairs of measures showed that the majority of observations fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Least-squares regression indicated that a 1-unit increase in arterial BD corresponded to a 0.9-unit increase in peripheral venous BD (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-1.0; P < .001) and a 1-unit increase in arterial lactic acid corresponded to a 0.9-unit increase in peripheral venous lactic acid (95% CI: 0.6-1.2; P < .001). These data demonstrate that there is a clinically useful correlation between arterial and peripheral venous lactic acid and BD values.