Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

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Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is a societal burden due to its high prevalence, frequent admissions for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), and the economic impact of direct and indirect costs associated with HF and ADHF. Common etiologies of ADHF include medication and diet noncompliance, arrhythmias, deterioration in renal function, poorly controlled hypertension, myocardial infarction, and infections. Appropriate medical management of ADHF in patients is guided by the identification of signs and symptoms of fluid overload or low cardiac output and utilization of evidence-based practices. In patients with fluid overload, various strategies for diuresis or ultrafiltration may be considered. Depending on hemodynamics and patient characteristics, vasodilator, inotropic, or vasopressor therapies may be of benefit. Upon ADHF resolution, patients should be medically optimized, have lifestyle modifications discussed and implemented, and medication concierge service considered. After discharge, a multidisciplinary HF team should follow up with the patient to ensure a safe transition of care. This review article evaluates the management options and considerations when treating a patient with ADHF.

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