Reintubation following unplanned extubation (UE) is often required and associated with increased morbidity; however, knowledge of risk factors leading to reintubation and subsequent outcomes in children is still lacking. We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes related to reintubation after UEs.Methods:
All mechanically ventilated children were prospectively tracked for UEs over a 7-year period in a pediatric intensive care unit. For each UE event, data associated with reintubation within 24 hours and outcomes were collected.Results:
Of 757 intubated patients, 87 UE occurred out of 11 335 intubation days (0.76 UE/100 intubation days), with 57 (65%) requiring reintubation. Most of the UEs that did not require reintubation were already weaning ventilator settings prior to UE (73%). Univariate analysis showed that younger children (<1 year) required reintubation more frequently after an UE. Patients experiencing UE during weaning experienced significantly fewer reintubations, whereas 90% of patients with full mechanical ventilation support required reintubation. Logistic regression revealed that requirement of full ventilator support (odds ratio: 37.5) and a COMFORT score <26 (odds ratio: 5.5) were associated with UE failure. There were no differences between reintubated and nonreintubated patients regarding the length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia rate, need for tracheostomy, and mortality. Cardiovascular and respiratory complications were seen in 33% of the reintubations.Conclusion:
The rate of reintubation is high in children experiencing UE. Requirement of full ventilator support and a COMFORT score <26 are associated with reintubation. Prospective research is required to better understand the reintubation decisions and needs.