Therapy service use among individuals with fragile X syndrome: findings from a US parent survey

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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is known to be associated with a range of developmental challenges, yet the occurrence and intensity of therapy services along with associated factors have not been determined.


In a US national survey, caregivers provided information regarding the therapy services received by their sons (n = 1013) and daughters (n = 283) with FXS (from birth to 63 years; mean = 15.6 years, SD = 10.6). Caregivers reported (1) type, (2) amount, (3) location, and (4) overall satisfaction with services. Associations with other child variables and family income were also examined.


Key findings included that 72% of males and 47% of females were currently receiving at least one type of therapy service; the most common services for both males and females were speech–language therapy (ST) and occupational therapy (OT). Overall, males were more likely to receive therapy services as well as a greater number of services than females. Autism status was significantly associated with both males and females receiving ST and males receiving OT and behaviour management therapy. Therapies were provided in a variety of locations, and parents were generally satisfied with the amount and quality of therapy services. Age-related declines were evident in the use of services for both males and females, with very few individuals receiving any therapy services after 20 years of age.


This study provides a baseline description of the current state of therapy services for children with FXS, laying a foundation for future research and recommendations for service provision and policy.

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