ACE Insertion/Deletion, But Not −240A>T Polymorphism, Modulates the Severity in Heart Failure

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ACE gene is reported to be a candidate gene in heart failure. The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism has been observed to be a predictor of mortality in this disease, but no data are available concerning the role of ACE −240A>T polymorphism. In this study, we investigated the role of ACE I/D and −240A>T polymorphisms in influencing both severity and clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure, according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class.


We studied 323 patients with heart failure (258 men/65 women; age, 70.8 ± 11.5 years) followed-up for 11.9 ± 6.6 months.


The ACE D and −240T allele frequency significantly increased according to the NYHA functional class (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively).


No significant difference in ACE polymorphism genotype distribution and allele frequency according to N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide tertiles was observed. At multinomial regression analysis, ACE D but not −240T allele has been evidenced to be a significant and independent predictor of severity for both NYHA III and IV classes (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The ACE D allele prevalence was higher, even if not significantly in both death and rehospitalization groups in comparison with survivors and nonrehospitalized (P = 0.6 and P = 0.9, respectively). No difference in −240T allele frequency has been observed for the ACE −240A>T polymorphism, in relation to both death and rehospitalization (P = 0.1 and P = 0.6, respectively).


This study suggests that ACE I/D polymorphism might represent a predisposing factor to severe heart failure, independently of well-known prognostic markers.

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