Patients with lung cancer often have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the impact of COPD on postresection survival of patients with lung cancer is unclear. This study evaluated the impact of COPD on survival of patients with lung cancer following pulmonary resection. Databases searched included PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase until March 2016. Study outcomes were overall survival and pulmonary complication rate (pneumonia, bronchial fistula, and prolonged mechanical ventilation). 6 studies with a total of 3761 patients were included. The presence of COPD was associated with lower overall survival, increased frequency of pneumonia, and prolonged mechanical ventilation (p values ≤0.001). COPD had no influence on bronchial fistula development (p=0.098). In summary, COPD was associated with poorer survival and an increased frequency of certain adverse events in patients with lung cancer following resection.