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Adipose tissue produces several adipokines that are enrolled in different metabolic and inflammatory pathways that may disturb iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Considering that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) has not been associated with a long-term risk of malabsorption, we performed a 13-month follow-up study in severe obese patients submitted to LAGB in order to clarify its impact on inflammation, iron metabolism and on red blood cell (RBC) biomarkers. Twenty obese patients were enrolled in the study, being clinical and analytically assessed before (T0) and 13 months after LAGB intervention (T1). Inflammation, iron bioavailability and RBC biomarkers were evaluated at T0 and T1. At T1, weight and anthropometric indices decreased significantly; patients showed a significant increase in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and a reduction in red cell distribution width, ferritin, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein. Before LAGB, IL-6 correlated negatively with iron, hemoglobin concentration and MCHC; hepcidin correlated inversely with transferrin. Our data show that 13 months after LAGB, the weight loss is associated with an improvement in inflammation, namely a reduction in IL-6 that may reduce hepcidin production, improving iron availability for erythropoiesis, as shown by more adequate erythrocyte hemoglobinization.