This study aimed to determine associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) with different comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Records of patients with type 2 DM who received an ABI and baPWV examination between August 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Associations of ABI and baPWV with chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic liver disease (CLD), coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) were examined by regression analysis. A total of 1232 patients (average age, 65.1±10.0 years) were included in the analysis. CKD and DN were associated with low ABI and increased baPWV (all, P<0.001). No associations were found between CAD and CLD and ABI or baPWV. Thus, regression analysis was performed for CKD and DN. Low ABI was associated with risk of CKD in the crude model (OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.648 to 0.808, P<0.001) and adjusted model (OR 0.872, 95% CI 0.762 to 0.999, P=0.048), whereas baPWV was only significant in the crude model (OR 1.199, 95% CI 1.112 to 1.294, P<0.001). Low ABI was associated with risk of DN in the crude model (OR 0.873, 95% CI 0.780 to 0.977, P=0.018) and adjusted model (OR 0.884, 95% CI 0.782 to 0.999, P=0.048). No association was found for baPWV. In conclusion, low ABI was associated with risk of CKD and DN in patients with type 2 diabetes.