Secular changes in cardiovascular risk factors and attack rate of myocardial infarction among men aged 50 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Accurate prediction using risk models

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Abstract

Aims

Coronary risk factor changes were related to attack rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods and results

Cross-sectional population samples of 50-year-old men were examined every 10th year from 1963 to 2003. Attack rates of AMI were recorded from 1975 to 2004. Prevalence of smoking decreased from 56% in 1963 to 22% in 2003. Leisure time physical activity decreased (n.s.), while psychological stress remained the same. Diabetes prevalence increased from 3.6% to 6.6%. Body mass index (BMI) increased from 24.8 to 26.4 kg m−2. Blood pressures decreased from 138.2/90.6 to 134.7/84.9 mmHg (P = 0.00001). Serum total cholesterol decreased from 6.42 to 5.50 mmol L−1 (P = 0.0001), but serum triglycerides increased from 1.26 to 1.71 mmol L−1 (P = 0.0001). The multivariable risk according to total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking for AMI decreased from the set value 1.0 in 1963 to 0.418. From 1975–1979 to 2000–2004 attack rates for AMI for the age groups 35–44, 45–54 and 55–64 declined to 45%, 46% and 45%, respectively. The 28-day case fatality declined from 30%, 38% and 46% to 12%, 16% and 20%.

Conclusion

The more than 50% decline in attack rate of AMI during 30 years was comparable with the decline in risk factors.

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