Inhibitors in haemophilia: what have we learned from registries? A systematic review

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Congenital haemophilia A and B are genetic disorders affecting factor VIII and factor IX production, respectively. Factor replacement is the only effective treatment for these deficiencies, but a patient's immune system can develop inhibitory antibodies which bind and interfere with the function of the replaced factor in a variety of ways. The main treatment goal for patients with inhibitors is to induce immune tolerance to the injected factor. If not successful, a different treatment termed bypass therapy is needed to treat bleeds. The goal of this review is to demonstrate the usefulness of haemophilia registries as information sources to supplement available evidence regarding predictors of inhibitor development and immune tolerance induction (ITI) outcomes. In this systematic review, relevant keywords were used to search online academic databases during February 2014. Inclusion criteria were original publication and data obtained from a haemophilia or ITI registry with a minimum of 30 patients. A data collection form was created to extract information from selected manuscripts. Titles, abstracts and then full texts were screened to determine the eligibility of reports for this review. Eleven manuscripts from nine registries were determined eligible and included in the study. Registries have reported on some core variables, but are inconsistent in reporting less practiced predicting variables. Variables that may affect inhibitor and ITI outcomes were each divided into two categories: patient characteristics (such as age and family history) and treatment-related variables (including exposure days, treatment duration and dose). It is recommended that, in addition to exploratory hypothesis testing, a minimum set of variables should be collected and reported by registries. International collaboration and well-designed prospective registries are of major importance to advance this field in order to determine inhibitor risks and ITI outcomes and facilitate the development of new treatments.

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