External quality assurance (EQA) schemes are essential for improvement of accuracy, reliability and comparability of results of biochemical genetic tests. ERNDIM (European Research Network for evaluation and improvement of screening, Diagnosis and treatment of Inherited disorders of Metabolism), established in 1994, operates nine EQA schemes for biochemical genetic testing according to international norms and recommendations. These comprise qualitative schemes for amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines, special assays in serum and urine and white cell cystine, qualitative organic acid and acylcarnitine schemes, as well as diagnostic proficiency testing. The total number of participants has increased from 123 in 1994 to 268 in 2007. Additional activities include participation in the Eurogentest project, a laboratory directory, training, education and development of guidelines. Results from the quantitative amino acid scheme with 170 participants reveal good variation within and between laboratories of below 10% for 10 amino acids; good within-laboratory variation but intermediate inter-laboratory variation of 10–22% for 11 amino acids; and higher variation within and between laboratories for 8 amino acids. Results on samples from 51 inherited metabolic disorders from two of five centres organizing diagnostic proficiency testing indicate overall diagnostic efficiency above 80% and improved performance of individual laboratories. Comparison of results for 10 and 12 compounds in the serum and urine special assay schemes respectively for 2000 and 2007 reveal clear improvement of precision within laboratories and in inter-laboratory variation. There is considerable evidence that performance in biochemical genetic testing has improved since the introduction of ERNDIM schemes.