Paediatric neurotransmitter diseases consist of a group of inherited neurometabolic diseases in children, and include disorders related to γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) metabolism, monoamine biosynthesis, etc. The diagnosis of paediatric neurotransmitter diseases remain a great challenge for paediatricians and child neurologists. In addition to clinical manifestations and CSF neurotransmitter measurement, neuroimaging findings can also be very informative for the diagnosis and evaluation of the patients. For patients with monoamine biosynthesis disorders, the functional evaluation of dopaminergic transmission also plays an important role. Understanding of the possible neuroimaging changes in paediatric neurotransmitter diseases is therefore of great value for the investigation of these patients.