Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada–like Syndrome Complicating Pembrolizumab Treatment for Metastatic Melanoma

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Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome is a rare condition implicating systemic immune reaction against melanocytes. The pathophysiology is unclear. A genetic predisposition has been suggested as HLA-DR4/DRB1*04 is more common among VKH patients. Drug induced VKH syndrome has been reported in advanced melanoma patients receiving immunotherapy, including ipilimumab and adoptive cell transfer of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte associated with IL-2. To date, no case of anti PD-1 -induced VKH syndrome has been described. We report here the case of a HLA-DR4/DRB1*04 patient successfully treated with anti PD-1 for advanced melanoma who developed a systemic immune reaction against melanocytes for whom we discuss a VKH-like syndrome diagnosis in a potentially genetically predisposed patient.

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