The genus Maculinea is confined to the Palaearctic region. Four species occur from Central Europe to China and/or Japan, while M. rebeli is probably restricted to Europe. Although within many Western European countries the distribution of the species is well known, there are still many questions. The exact status of some of the species is still unclear and the amount of decline in this century is unknown. In Asia, especially within the nations of the former USSR, the distributions of species are even less well known and as a basis for good research and effective nature conservation, knowledge on these subjects is needed.