The Hierarchical Model of Exercise Dependence: The Development of the Problematic Practice of Physical Exercise Scale

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Abstract

Physical exercise when done excessively may have negative consequences on physical and psychological wellbeing. There exist many scales to measure this phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to create a scale measuring the problematic practice of physical exercise (PPPE Scale) by combining two assessment tools already existing in the field of exercise dependency but anchored in different approaches (EDS-R and EDQ). This research consists of three studies carried out on three independent sample populations. The first study (N = 341) tested the construct validity (exploratory factor analysis); the second study (N = 195) tested the structural validity (confirmatory factor analysis) and the third study (N = 104) tested the convergent validity (correlations) of the preliminary version of the PPPE scale. Exploratory factor analysis identified six distinct dimensions associated with exercise dependency. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis validated a second order model consisting of 25 items with six dimensions and four sub-dimensions. The convergent validity of this scale with other constructs (GLTEQ, EAT26, and The Big Five Inventory [BFI]) is satisfactory. The preliminary version of the PPPE must be administered to a large population to refine its psychometric properties and develop scoring norms.

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