Nutrition intervention plays a significant role in changing patient clinical outcomes in the intensive care unit. Identifying patients at nutrition risk with a validated tool is essential. The decision to use enteral or parenteral nutrition is patient dependent and should include an assessment of the patient's gastrointestinal function. Protein is a critical component of the nutrition prescription, and prescribed levels may need to be higher than current guidelines recommend. Alternative lipids, such as olive oil and fish oil, are still being evaluated for their potential clinical impact. Avoiding nutrition therapy-associated complications, such as catheter infection and hyperglycemia, are important factors in being able to maximize the effectiveness of a nutritional intervention.