Calix[n]arenes as components for the construction of micellar systems: synthesis and self-assembly properties of 5,11,17-Tris[(dimethylamino)methyl]-25-monoalkoxy-26,27,28-trihydroxycalix[4]arene derivatives

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A series of mono-O-alkylated calix [4] arenes derivatives, with alkyl chain lengths of between 1 and 12 carbon atoms are reported. Monoalkylation is best achieved using potassium carbonate as the weak base and the respective alkyl iodide for chain lengths of one to three carbon atoms and using caesium fluoride as the base and the respective alkyl iodide for longer chain lengths. The mono-alkylated derivatives were converted into the tri-para-dimethylaminomethylene derivatives by the para-quinonemethide reaction in good yields. Surface tension measurements showed that at pH 2, 4, 6 and 8 all the tri-dimethylaminomethylene derivatives showed surfactant behaviour, and at pH 2 all show a Critical Micellar Concentration values. No correlation between Critical Micellar Concentration values and chain length is observed. Dynamic Light Scattering measurements showed that the CMC behaviour may be correlated with the observed aggregate sizes. The solid state structure of mono-O-ethoxy-calix[4]arene is described, in this structure a 1-D inclusion polymer is observed.

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