Characterization of the complexation of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with γ-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin using affinity capillary electrophoresis

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The complexation of seven bile salts, present in the small intestine of rat, dog and man, (taurocholate, tauro-β-muricholate, taurodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate) with γ-cyclodextrin and the chemically modified 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin, was studied using affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE). The cyclodextrins (CDs) were investigated due to their use in drug formulation as excipients for solubilisation of poorly soluble drugs and drug candidates. Using mobility shift ACE, the bile salt cyclodextrin interactions were characterized demonstrating 1:1 binding stoichiometry with stability constants ranging from 2 × 103 to 8 × 104 M−1. The binding constants showed a systematic dependence on the number and position of hydroxyl groups on the steroid skeleton and the stability constants were in general higher for complexation with the native cyclodextrin than with the modified cyclodextrin. Based upon the size of the complexation constants, it was suggested that the interaction between the CDs and the bile salts takes place at the C and D ring of the steroid skeleton. The complexation of bile salts with the γ-cyclodextrins may compete with drug-γ-cyclodextrin complex formation and, thus, potentially affect drug absorption and efficacy.

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