KRAS gene mutations are a useful predictive factor for the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapeutics. Since there were no large-scale studies among Asian populations, we designed an observational nationwide study in Japan.Methods
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks or sections from primary or metastatic lesions were obtained from patients registered between 2009 and 2010 for genomic DNA extraction. KRAS gene was analyzed by direct sequencing or Luminex assay. The primary endpoint was the frequency of KRAS gene mutations and the secondary endpoints were differences in KRAS mutation rates by various stratification factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate relationships between KRAS mutation rates and patient background factors.Results
We analyzed 5790 eligible samples out of 5887 registered. The overall KRAS mutation rate was 37.6%, with 29.9% in codon 12 and 7.7% in codon 13, and wild type was 62.4%. A significant relationship with the KRAS mutation rate was found for gender, age, the year that the sample was prepared and the site of the primary lesion.Conclusion
The KRAS mutation rate of Japanese colorectal cancer patients was 37.6%. Gender, age, the site of the primary lesion and the year that the sample was prepared were independent risk factors for KRAS mutations.