Inactivating Mutations in SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Genes in Human Cancer

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Abstract

Chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid and histone proteins form a highly condensed structure known as chromatin. Chromatin remodeling proteins regulate deoxyribonucleic acid transcription, synthesis and repair by changing nucleosomal composition in an adenosine triphosphate-dependent manner and mediate access of deoxyribonucleic acid-binding proteins to deoxyribonucleic acid double strands. Recently, large-scale genome sequencing studies identified somatic mutations in genes encoding chromatin remodeling proteins in a variety of human solid cancers. Notably, inactivating mutations in genes encoding the catalytic and regulatory subunits of the switch/sucrose non-fermenting chromatin remodeling complex have been detected in several solid cancers: sucrose non-fermenting/switch/sucrose non-fermenting-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 47/integrase interactor 1 mutations in rhabdoid tumors; AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1 A/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 250a mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma; polybromo 1/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 180 mutations in renal clear cell carcinoma; Brahma-related gene 1/switch/sucrose non-fermenting-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4 mutations in non-small-cell lung carcinoma and AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 2/Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor 200 mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma and malignant melanoma. This suggests that the switch/sucrose non-fermenting complex has a tumor-suppressive function, and that switch/sucrose non-fermenting gene deficiencies may affect the properties of cancer cells, which could be of value for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

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