Safety and discomfort during bronchoscopy performed under sedation with fentanyl and midazolam: a prospective study

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Although sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopic examination is widely accepted in the USA and Europe, it is not routine practice in Japan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopy.


Thirty-seven patients were enrolled prospectively between November 2014 and July 2015 at Okayama University Hospital. Fentanyl (20 μg) was administered to the patients just before the examination, and fentanyl (10 μg) and midazolam (1 mg) were added as needed during the procedure. A questionnaire was administered 2 hours after the examination. In the questionnaire, patient satisfaction was scored using a visual analog scale as follows: great (1 point), good (2 points), normal (3 points), uncomfortable (4 points) and very uncomfortable (5 points). An additional question (‘Do you remember the bronchoscopic examination?’) was also used. Predefined matters for investigation (e.g. blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and complications) were recorded.


The enrolled patients included 13 males and 24 females; the median age was 67 (range: 31–87) years. The patients received a median dose of fentanyl of 45.4 μg (range: 30–100 μg) and midazolam of 2.56 mg (range: 1–10 mg). Twenty-six patients (70.2%) agreed to undergo a second bronchoscopic examination, and the average levels of discomfort and re-examination were 2.02 points for each. Only 37.8% of the patients remembered the bronchoscopic examination. No severe complications were reported.


Sedation with fentanyl and midazolam during bronchoscopic examination should be recommended for use in Japan.

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