Development of the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS): Based on results of questionnaire surveys of parents raising children between 3 and 6 years old

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The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity.


The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3–6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test–retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS.


The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named “self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery” and “self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery”. A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = −0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test–retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant.


The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved.

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