Development of the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS): Based on results of questionnaire surveys of parents raising children between 3 and 6 years old

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Abstract

Aim:

The aim of this study is to prepare the Parental Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Autonomy toward Minor Surgery (PSESCAMS) and verify its reliability and validity.

Methods:

The PSESCAMS was developed based on the findings of previous qualitative studies on preschool children aged 3–6 years who were undergoing day surgery and their parents. The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Maternal Self-Accomplishment Scale (MSAS), and Japanese-language version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory A-trait subscale (STAI: A-trait) were used to examine the criterion-related validity of the PSESCAMS. In addition, the test–retest method was utilized for the PSESCAMS.

Results:

The number of valid responses was 586. A principle component analysis of the PSESCAMS was conducted of 18 items, extracting two factors. As a result of factor analysis that assumed two factors, the two factors were named “self-efficacy for support related to child's emotional control for minor surgery” and “self-efficacy for support related to child's understanding of minor surgery”. A structural equation model having high goodness of fit for the PSESCAMS was shown by a covariance structure analysis. The correlations between GSES, MSAS, STAI: A-trait and the PSESCAMS were r = 0.323 (P < 0.001), r = 0.370 (P < 0.001), and r = −0.248 (P < 0.001), respectively. Cronbach's alpha of both the initial test and the test–retest for the PSESCAMS were 0.9 and the correlation between both was significant.

Conclusion:

The PSESCAMS consists of two categories and includes 18 items. The reliability and validity of the PSESCAMS were proved.

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