Korean Work Environment Scales for Clinical Nurses

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The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool for the hospital nursing work environment in Korea.


The participants were 564 clinical nurses who worked in 13 hospitals in seven provinces in regions throughout South Korea; they worked in medical–surgical nursing, pediatric and maternal nursing, intensive care unit, and other areas. The data analysis relied on descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis, including varimax rotation, and reliability was determined using SPSS software.


The final assessment tool, the Korean Work Environment Scales for Clinical Nurses (KWES-CN) was composed of 39 items divided into nine factors: (i) manager leadership; (ii) supporting environment for nursing work; (iii) patient care environment and professional activities; (iv) violence within ward; (v) sufficient inventory and supply; (vi) hospital's support for working environment; (vii) recognition and respect; (viii) satisfaction with work schedule; and (ix) computer problems. The total variance for validity described by the nine factors was 58.7% and the reliability of the tool was a Cronbach's alpha of 0.87.


This final assessment tool will be used to improve nursing work. Further research must be conducted to verify the reliability and validity of this tool, and evaluations of nursing quality and patient results related to the nursing environment.

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