Common Clinical Features of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Perspectives From a Developing Nation

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Abstract

Foot ulceration is a prominent cause of diabetes mellitus morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This is an observational study in which 47 consecutive diabetes mellitus patients with foot ulcers were studied over a 2-year period. Each patient's medical history, physical examination findings, and hematological and radiological features were documented. The mean age of the patients was 56 (11) years. The majority of the patients (40, 85%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus; 25% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were diagnosed when they presented with foot ulceration. Grades 2 and 3 Wagner lesions were the most frequently noted grades of foot ulceration. The risk factors/precipitants of foot ulceration included neuropathy, vasculopathy, spontaneous blisters, walking unshod, and wearing inadequate shoes. Prominent hematologic abnormalities included anemia and leucocytosis. Diabetes mellitus foot ulceration often occurs in middle-aged Nigerians with diabetes mellitus, and this diabetes mellitus complication may be present at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subcutaneous emphysema, osteolysis, and soft tissue swelling are often documented radiological features of DFU in our patients.

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