Silver Sulfadiazine and Cerium Nitrate in Ischemic Skin Necrosis of the Leg and Foot: Results of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

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Abstract

Flammacerium is a topical treatment composed of silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate initially used in burns. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate on ischemic necrosis wounds of the lower limb as an alternative to amputation for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were prospectively randomized to receive silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate or standard care. Patients included adults with an ischemic wound of the lower limb, with necrosis covering over at least 50%. Critical ischemia limb was confirmed by an ankle-brachial index <0.7 or >1.3 with radiological confirmation. Patient demographic data, amputations procedures, wound area, Visual Analogue Scale pain rating, clinical infection, and adverse events were recorded. Fifty patients, 34 males and 16 females, were recruited between January 2010 and April 2014, 25 in each group. The mean age was 75.14 years (±11.64). Nine amputations (36%) occurred in each group. Amputation-free survival was superior in the active treatment group versus the standard group (169 393 days, 95% confidence interval = 134.926-203.861, vs 169 393 days, 95% confidence interval = 134.926-203.861). It was not statistically significant (log-rank, P = .958). Wound area reduction between both groups was not statistically different (P = .651). Less adverse events of the lower limb occurred in the active treatment group (P = .001). Our study showed that silver sulfadiazine and cerium nitrate is not inferior to standardized care on ischemic necrotic wounds of the lower extremity. Further studies are still needed to confirm its effectiveness.

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