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The aim of the study was to assess risk factors for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and anal dysplasia among a cohort of transgender women (TGW).A retrospective chart review was conducted based on electronic medical records of TGW patients seen in the University of Miami Health System between 2010 and 2016. Outcome measures included risk factors of anal dysplasia, including HIV infection, receptive anal intercourse, and smoking history. Descriptive statistical analysis and χ2 testing were used.Sixty-nine TGW patients' charts were reviewed. Patients' ages ranged from 18 to 72 (mean = 38 ). Twenty-two (30%) were older than 50 years; 10 (15%) were black/African descent; 20 (29%) reported a smoking history; 6 (9%) were HIV positive, and 28 (72%) among those with known partner preference (n = 39) reported male partners. Male partner preference was significantly associated with being black/African descent (p = .009) and being single (p = .048). Older age was significantly associated with HIV-positive status (p = .023). The average number of risk factors per person was 2.10 (0.97). Sixty-one years or older had the highest average number of risk factors (2.90 [0.88]).Because rates of HIV, dangerous sexual behaviors, and other risk factors for anal dysplasia continue to persist among TGW, this study reinforces the need to increase the focus on anal health in the care of TGW and the need for further research to guide patient care and anal dysplasia screening strategies among those individuals.