Distribution of PCR ribotypes among recentClostridium difficileisolates collected in two districts of Hungary using capillary gel electrophoresis and review of changes in the circulating ribotypes over time

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Following the first description of a Clostridium difficile case caused by ribotype 027 in Hungary in 2007, the rapid spread of C. difficile infection in different hospitals within the country was observed. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the distribution of different PCR ribotypes among inpatient and outpatient isolates obtained in two geographically different parts of Hungary. One hundred and ninety-two toxigenic C. difficile isolates collected between 1 October and 1 December 2014 were PCR ribotyped using capillary gel electrophoresis and the database of WEBRIBO (http://webribo.ages.at), which allows the automatic analysis and comparison of capillary-sequencer-based PCR ribotyping data. Altogether, 31 different known ribotypes were found, and 16 isolates showed a novel banding pattern, not included in the current library. Besides the dominance of 027 (33.3 %) among all isolates, there were differences in its presence among isolates obtained from the two regions (45.8 % in the central region and 20.8 % in the south-east region, respectively), whereas the second most prevalent ribotype 036 (19.8 %) was more frequently found among isolates obtained in the south-east region compared with the central region of Hungary (29.1 versus 10.4 %). Similar differences in the spread of different ribotypes, in particular 027, which were found during earlier studies in Hungary may be due to the existing order for admissions of patients to hospitals. We also summarized the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of Hungarian C. difficile isolates over time, based on earlier published data.

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