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In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Brazilian childhood vaccination programme. Concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes could increase in prevalence and reduce the benefits of vaccination; therefore, we examined non-PCV10 isolates recovered from meningitis during pre- (January 2008-May 2010) and post-vaccine (June 2010-December 2012) periods. Surveillance for pneumococcal meningitis was established at the Reference Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Salvador, Brazil. Serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by E-test and broth microdilution. Genotyping used PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing. A total of 148 cases of meningitis were identified from January 2008 to December 2012, 77 (52 %) of which were due to non-PCV10 isolates, with 50 (52.1 %) from pre-vaccine and 27 (52 %) from post-vaccine periods. In the post-vaccine period, the non-PCV10 serotypes 12F (n=6; 22.2 %), 10A (n=3; 11.1 %), 15B (n=2; 7.4 %) and 18B (n=2; 7.4 %) were the most prevalent. Forty-three isolates (55.8 %) were non-susceptible to one or more antibiotics. Non-susceptibility to penicillin was observed among serotypes 19A (three isolates), 9N (one isolate) and 12F (one isolate). PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing results demonstrated a wide genetic diversity among the isolates. During the early period following PCV10 introduction, no obvious emergence of a particular serotype was evident among non-PCV10 strains. This study underscores the importance of monitoring any changes among non-PCV10 cases after the introduction of PCV10.