Characterisation of clinically isolatedStreptococcus pyogenesfrom balanoposthitis patients, with special emphasis onemm89 isolates

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Streptococcus pyogenes causes a variety of diseases, such as pharyngitis and toxic shock syndrome. In addition, this bacterium is a causative agent of balanoposthitis. To reveal the bacteriological characteristics of the isolates from balanoposthitis patients, we analysed 47 isolates. In addition, novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes isolates have been reported to be spreading worldwide recently. Hence, we further analysed eight emm89 isolates.


A drug susceptibility experiment was performed and emm types were determined. More detailed experiments, such as PCR analysis for the presence of virulence-associated genes and MLST analysis, were performed especially using emm89 isolates.


All isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, but 34% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The emm types of the isolates varied, with emm89 and emm11 being the most prevalent, but the emm1 type was not detected. The analysis of emm89 isolates revealed that drug susceptibilities varied. All isolates were negative for the hasABC gene and produced active NADase that are characteristics of novel clade genotype emm89 S. pyogenes. MLST analysis demonstrated that six isolates were of the ST101 type, the most predominant type reported thus far, but two isolates were of the ST646 type. According to the PCR analysis used to determine the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin-related genes, the six ST101 isolates were further classified into four groups.


These results suggest that balanoposthitis is caused by a variety of types of S. pyogenes, with novel clade genotype emm89 isolates playing a role in balanoposthitis infections in Japan.

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