Surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and antibiotic-resistance patterns of locally occurring uropathogens is essential to serve as a basis for empirical treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), as antibiotic-resistance rates may vary geographically with significant differences between countries and regions, and with time.Methodology.
We retrospectively analysed all urine samples taken in the department of urology in a tertiary care hospital in Hungary from January 2004 to December 2015.Results/Key findings.
The five most commonly occurring bacteria were Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Resistance of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin increased significantly from 19 to 25%. Although the resistance of Escherichia coli against cephalosporins showed an increasing trend, it still remained generally low. However, resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to cephalosporins were very high, reaching 60%, due to the high rate of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-positive Klebsiella strains. We observed a significant increase in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Conclusion.
Fluoroquinolones cannot be recommended for empirical treatment in our region. Cephalosporins can be a good empirical choice for treating Gram-negative UTIs, but should be avoided when multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are suspected. Increases in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and in the general rate of MDR bacteria, are both a very alarming trend. We recommend practising prudent antibiotic policy, preferably using antibiotics with the narrowest possible spectrum.