There is currently a wealth of information regarding the mutations that contribute to cancer development. Most of these mutations alter the expression and activity of signal transduction proteins. The current goal in cancer therapy is to use our knowledge of the molecular alterations in a cancer cell to choose the most appropriate signal transduction inhibitor for an individual patient. The topic of this review is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase signaling pathway, which is aberrantly activated in many types of human cancer. We will discuss the mTOR pathway and the potential mechanisms that contribute to its activation in cancer, together with data relating to the potential for inhibitors targeting the mTOR-signaling pathway to impact on breast cancer therapy.