The dystonias

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Dystonia is a syndrome of abnormal involuntary movements characterised by sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures.[1] Dystonia may be classified according to aetiology, as primary torsion dystonia (also known as idiopathic torsion dystonia, ITD) when dystonia is the only abnormality, or as secondary dystonia when occurring in the setting of another disease. Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) is predominantly genetic in aetiology and may now be increasingly subdivided according to genetic locus, as the understanding of the molecular genetic basis of dystonia evolves.

(J Med Genet 1998;35:314-318)

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