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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibits high heritability and is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the disease-causing genes in families with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibiting Mendelian inheritance.The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene in a family with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Whole-exome sequencing was performed on this family to identify the candidate gene. Sanger sequencing was conducted to validate the candidate mutations and familial segregation. Real-time QPCR was used to measure the expression level of the possible causative gene.We identified the mutation c.2645A>C (p.E882A) within the AKAP2 gene, which cosegregated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotypes. AKAP2 is located in a previously reported linkage locus (IS4) on chromosome 9q31.2–q34.2 and has been implicated in skeletal development. The mutation was absent in dbSNP144, ESP6500 and 503 ethnicity-matched controls. Real-time QPCR revealed that the mRNA expression level in the patients was increased significantly compared with the family controls (p<0.0001).AKAP2 was therefore implicated as a novel gene mutated in a Chinese family with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Further studies should be conducted to validate the results from the perspective of both the genetics and pathogenesis of this disease.