Multicentre study of maternal and neonatal outcomes in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome

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IntroductionPrader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder associated with three different genetic subtypes: deletion of the paternal copy of 15q11-q13, maternal UPD for chromosome 15 and imprinting defect. Patients are typically diagnosed because of neonatal hypotonia, dysmorphism and feeding difficulties; however, data on the prenatal features of PWS are limited.ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to identify and compare frequencies of prenatal and neonatal clinical features of PWS among the three genetic subtypes.MethodsData from 355 patients with PWS from the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network PWS registry were used to analyse multiple maternal and neonatal factors collected during an 8-year multisite study.ResultsAmong our cohort of 355 patients with PWS (61% deletion, 36% UPD and 3% imprinting defect) 54% were born by caesarean section, 26% were born prematurely and 34% with a low birth weight (frequencies 32%, 9.6% and 8.1%, respectively, in the general population). Fetal movements were reported as decreased in 72%. All babies were hypotonic, and 99% had feeding difficulties. Low Apgar scores (<7) were noted in 17.7% and 5.6% of patients, respectively, compared with 1% and 1.4%, respectively, in the general population. Maternal age and pre-pregnancy weight were significantly higher in the UPD group (p=0.01 and <0.001, respectively).ConclusionWe found a higher rate of perinatal complications in PWS syndrome compared with the general population. No significant differences in the genetic subtypes were noted except for a higher maternal age and pre-pregnancy weight in the UPD subgroup

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