Comprehensive overview of the pharmacogenetic diversity in Ashkenazi Jews

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BackgroundAdverse drug reactions are a major concern in drug development and clinical therapy. Genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolism and transport are major determinants of treatment efficacy and adverse reactions, and constitute important biomarkers for drug dosing, efficacy and safety. Importantly, human populations and subgroups differ substantially in their pharmacogenetic variability profiles, with important consequences for personalised medicine strategies and precision public health approaches. Despite their long migration history, Ashkenazi Jews constitute a rather isolated population with a unique genetic signature that is distinctly different from other populations.ObjectiveTo provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacogenetic profile in Ashkenazim.MethodsWe analysed next-generation sequencing data from 5076 Ashkenazim individuals and used sequence data from 117 425 non-Jewish individuals as reference.ResultsWe derived frequencies of 164 alleles in 17 clinically relevant pharmacogenes and derived profiles of putative functional consequences, providing the most comprehensive data set of Jewish pharmacogenetic diversity published to date. Furthermore, we detected 127 variants with an aggregated frequency of 20.7% that were specifically found in Ashkenazim, of which 55 variants were putatively deleterious (aggregated frequency of 9.4%).ConclusionThe revealed pattern of pharmacogenetic variability in Ashkenazi Jews is distinctly different from other populations and is expected to translate into unique functional consequences, especially for the metabolism of CYP2A6, CYP2C9, NAT2 and VKORC1 substrates. We anticipate that the presented data will serve as a powerful resource for the guidance of pharmacogenetic treatment decisions and the optimisation of population-specific genotyping strategies in the Ashkenazi diaspora.

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