Exit wave reconstruction using a conventional transmission electron microscope

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Exit wave reconstruction of a focus series of Ge in [110] using the PAM-MAL algorithm was performed on a conventional electron microscope. The simulated images using the reconstructed object wave match very well with those obtained experimentally. Amplitudes from the complex wave function were extracted by means of local Fourier transformation. Crystal thickness and tilt were determined locally by quantitative comparison of the reconstructed amplitudes with amplitudes from multislice calculations. Detailed analysis yields the quasicoherent imaging approach used in the PAM-MAL algorithm to produce the largest error in the analysis. For the Ge crystal specimen parameters were quantified to spatial frequencies of 5 nm-1. In the case of an object producing strong diffracted beams, the reconstruction may fail because the quasicoherent approximation will not describe correctly the nonlinear image formation.

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