The binding mode of (2S)-2-[4-[[(3S)-1-acetimidoyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]oxy]phenyl]-3-(7-amidino-2-naphthyl)propanoic acid hydrochloride (DX-9065a, 4) to Factor Xa is examined using inhibition data for a series of analogs that have a hydrophobic group as well as basic or dibasic functionality. Comparative molecular field analysis is utilized on a series of DX-9065a analogs in a series of proposed alternative binding modes. A quantitative measure is provided that distinguishes between the proposed binding modes that describes ‘how well’ the binding mode explains the structure-activity relationship or the best 3D QSAR agrees with the crystallographically determined binding mode. The best model is in agreement with recently available data [Brandstetter et al., J. Biol. Chem., 271 (1996) 29988]. The highest statistical correlation occurs with the second basic group accommodated in the vicinity of Glu97 and a hydrophobic group accommodated in the pocket defined by Phe174, Tyr99 and Trp215. Also, the best model arises when the conformation of the Glu97 side chain is modified such that an H-bond interaction is maintained with the inhibitor if possible. The model also shows a tightening of the S1 pocket as is shown in the recent data described above.