This study determined the effects of pcDNA3-β-nerve growth factor (NGF) gene-modified bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) on the rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3-β-NGF was transfected into BMSC, and NGF expression and its biological activity in vitro were detected. BMSC modified by the NGF gene were then grafted into the corpus striatum of PD rats, and the rotation behavior was evaluated at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-transplantation. A significant improvement in rotation behavior was observed in PD rats subjected to cell transplantation, especially in PD rats receiving NGF-modified BMSC. The genetically modified BMSC survived and expressed β-NGF but did not differentiate into tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells in vivo. The present findings suggested that genetically modified BMSC could be effective for PD treatment, and the mechanisms might involve the neuroprotective effects of β-NGF.