This study assessed striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors of 1-methyl 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys with levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LID). In a first experiment, four MPTP monkeys receiving L-DOPA/Benserazide alone developed dyskinesias. Four MPTP monkeys received L-DOPA/Benserazide plus CI-1041 an NMDA antagonist selective for NR1/NR2B and four were treated with L-DOPA/Benserazide plus a small dose of cabergoline; one monkey of each group developed mild dyskinesias at the end of treatment. In a second experiment, a kynurenine 3-hydroxylase inhibitor Ro 61–8048, combined with L-DOPA/Benserazide, reduced dyskinesias in MPTP monkeys. Drug-treated MPTP monkeys were compared to intact monkeys and saline-treated MPTP monkeys. Glutamate receptors were investigated by autoradiography using [3H]CGP-39653 (NR1/NR2A antagonist) and [3H]Ro25-6981 (NR1/NR2B antagonist). In general, striatal [3H]CGP-39653 specific binding was unaltered in all experimental groups. MPTP lesion decreased striatal [3H]Ro25-6981 specific binding; these levels were enhanced in the L-DOPA-alone-treated MPTP monkeys and decreased in antidyskinetic drugs treated monkeys. Maximal dyskinesias scores of the MPTP monkeys correlated significantly with [3H]Ro25-6981 specific binding in the rostral and caudal striatum. Hence, MPTP lesion, L-DOPA treatment and prevention of LID with CI-1041 and cabergoline, or reduction with Ro 61–8048 were associated with modulation of NR2B/NMDA glutamate receptors.